Research and innovation
The Leuven/ Louvain-la-Neuve Communiqué (2009) acknowledges that higher education fosters innovation and creativity in the society, and, in the same time, higher education itself needs to be based on the current state of the art in research and development. Therefore, it is hard to imagine a higher education institution disconnected from research.
The Bergen Communiqué (2005) affirms that higher education is at the crossroads of research, education and innovation. In this respect, stimulating research and innovation and creating and maintaining a broad, advanced knowledge base for our societies are some of the purposes of higher education institutions in the frame of the EHEA, alongside with preparing students for their future careers, active citizenship and enabling their personal development.
The Bologna Process, since its inception, has placed emphasis on securing closer links overall between the higher education and research sectors. The Leuven/ Louvain-la-Neuve Communiqué (2009) indicates the synergies between education and research as some of the key solutions for overcoming the economic crisis affecting Europe.
The Bologna Process refers to the synergies between education, research and innovation transversally, while it addresses other action lines such as the learning cycles, mobility, recognition and internationalization.
Earlier, The Sorbonne Joint Declaration (1998) calls for "appropriate emphasis (also) on research and autonomous work", in connection to the learning cycles. Berlin Communiqué (2003) suggests the doctoral cycle as being the contribution of universities to developing a knowledge based society, while Bergen Communiqué (2005) makes explicit the particularities of the doctoral studies: "participants in the third cycle programme are both students and early stage researchers ", as a link between education and research.
The Bologna Declaration places Europe's "scientific traditions" amongst the attractions of the EHEA, while the Prague and Bergen Communiqués underline the quality of research and education in the same respect. Leuven/ Louvain-la-Neuve Communiqué captures another dimension of internationalization: highly qualified researchers are listed as needed to be attracted to the EHEA through "attractive working conditions and career paths, as well as open international recruitment".
In the early Communiqués, Bologna (1999) and Prague (2001) researchers are nominated amongst the ones that should benefit of mobility and recognition policies. The Leuven/ Louvain-la-Neuve Communiqué (2009) brings back on the agenda the topic of mobility and recognition policies, also for early stage researchers.
Vienna/Budapest Communiqué (2010) brings an integrative touch: researchers are listed, alongside with institutional leaders, teachers, administrative staff and students as part of the academic community "having the key role in making the EHEA a reality".